Model Document

couchbasekit.document.Document is the main class you will be extending to define your own model documents. There are 3 attributes must be set within your model:

  • __bucket_name__
  • doc_type
  • structure

and the optional ones are:

  • __key_field__
  • default_values
  • required_fields

__bucket_name__ (required)

The name of the couchbase bucket that the new records will be saved into and retrieved back from. This bucket should be already created manually.

doc_type (required)

The type of the document that will be used in various places and usually lowercase of your model name but not checked or forced.

The most important function of doc_type attribute is to create an auto-field named doc_type in every document. That means you can use it in your JavaScript views to check which type of documents you want to emit:

function (doc, meta) {
  if (doc.doc_type=='author') {
    emit(doc.slug, {first_name: doc.first_name, last_name: doc.last_name});

Another function of doc_type is to prefix your document id, if you’re using __key_field__ optional attribute in order to create meaningful document IDs. Its format is; {doc_type}_{key_value.lower()}. If you don’t choose to use __key_field__ in your models, doc_type will not be used to prefix your document IDs either.

structure (required)

Structure definition dictionary is a wide topic, therefore explained in another section. See Model Document Structure.

__key_field__ (optional)

Key field is kind of simulating primary key feature in relational databases that gives you ability to retrieve a single document by its key value without doing a map-reduce in your buckets. It should be set to one of your root field in your structure and it is your responsibility to check if a document exist with the same key value before over-writing it.

Assuming the username field is the __key_field__ in your structure:

userdata = {'username': u'kirpit', 'is_superuser': True}
    user = User(userdata['username'])
except User.DoesNotExist:
    # good, username is not taken
    user = User(userdata)
    print 'Sorry, this username is already taken.'

If you don’t provide a __key_field__ in your structure, first 12 characters of the hash key of your initial document will be used without prefixing with doc_type attribute. Hashing is done via hashlib.sha1.

default_values (optional)

As it explains itself, it sets the default values for specified fields before saving a document. Practically, you may assign a static value, a custom field, a model document to relate or any callable that gives a value for it.

It does NOT set the document value, if it was already provided (which is not surprising, is it?).

Refer to Quick Start for an example.

required_fields (optional)

Another self explanatory attribute that checks if its items was provided at the time of validation. It should be a tuple() (list() is ok too) and have all the names of the fields that are required.

Refer to Quick Start for an example.

Bonus: @register_view decorator

You may use this decorator to declare which design view your document instances will be using. This feature is used by couchbasekit.document.Document.view() that lets you to query your views:

from couchbasekit import Document, register_view

class Book(Document):
    __bucket_name__ = 'mybucket'
    doc_type = 'book'
    structure = {
        # snip snip

Then it becomes easier to get your view queries. Please refer to CouchBase views documentation for advanced query options:

>>> by_title = Book().view('by_title').results({
...     'startkey': 'A',
...     'endkey': 'C',
...     'stale': 'ok',
...     'limit': 1000,
... })
>>> for result in by_title.results:
...     print result['id'], result['key'], result['value']

An experimental tool couchbasekit.viewsync.ViewSync also uses this decorator to backup/restore your server-side map/reduce functions.


@register_view decorator automatically attaches 'full_set': True parameter to your development views by default, so you don’t have do it programmatically. To disable it simply use as: @register_view('dev_books', full_set=False). This feature doesn’t affect production views at all.

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